A Roman Abacus. A Curbed marble or mettalic flat plate with beads. Each small beads on the right stands for 1/12,1/24.1/48.
You can calculate from 1 to 15 in a unit with two "five bead". This was very useful for chinese because 1kin(a unit of weight in China) was 16ryo.
The upper is high,and the down is low,To calculate,you move a bead from right to left.A place is made up of 10 beads or 4beads,to calculate 1/4 ruble and 1/4 cabeica.
To prevent from calculating on a wrong unit, drove a nail in the front of frame.
An abacus with two sides and four beads , mainly used for calculating a fraction.
An Abacus with inclined axis for writing slips.
An industrial art object ,made with beads.
A big Abucus for a abacus school,a classroom for a billboard.
The China min dynasty 1368-1644AD"Keitokuchin" The ceramics which a blue-and-white china dyed pattern was turned into with world for the first time.34x17x11cm､ A pattern ,"Karakusamon" ,Chinese phoenix. There is brilliant figure relief of dragon (dragon is symbol of a king) by a for each 4 corner. There is a drawer of brilliant figure crest of dragon in both sides. It is the abacus ceramics which are unusual with world.
"Jinkouki" is the book which sold most in the Edo period. This book is the handwriting of mathematics, and firstly usage of abacus is written. In addition to four rules numeration, we can learn it to advanced numeration.
And the problem which answer was not added to was put last and demanded the solution method, and persons of most were troubled It is a story for the 17th century.
Persons charmed as general common sense in abacus, arithmetic by greater or equal seemed to be absorbed in game of go, shogi, chess, othello at all and devoted myself to arithmetic.
Some in them solved arithmetic expression difficult to understand at the very front of people and received cheers. There was the person too who went around each place while just announcing the ability like an itinerant entertainer.
People who were active in case of changes from the Edo period to the Meiji era, many of them brought up in a private elementary school of the Edo period and a private school.
Ability to use a computer for is required currently."Yomi Kaki Soroban" was important ability in those days alike.
In the Edo period, the formula educational institution for common did not exist.
But there was private management educational institution called "Teragoya" in any kind of small village, and when children became six or seven-year-old, they went to one private elementary school of the Edo period in temples nearby for three or four years.
So they were able to learn "Yomi Kaki Soroban" by putting only tuition fee.
Japanese education after the Meiji era was established between minimum term without big failure.
In the background, that a private elementary school of the Edo period spread already is nominated for educational institution.
They bore shock in the foundation of a country, and it was altitude of education level that supported the later evolution.
The person of 20% understood character in a remote place of rural community. As for the school attendance percentage, a person of 70-80% experienced learning in a private elementary school of the Edo period in the Edo era during 60 from 1840.
Otherwise, in the United Kingdom, the school attendance percentage was 20-25% in a carpenter business city in 1838.